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Other major languages are Sarnami-Hindustani and Surinamese-Javanese. The national coat of arms shows two Amerindians holding a shield and has the motto Justitia-Pietas-Fides ("Justice-Love-Fidelity").
The left part of the shield shows a ship; the palm tree on the right represents the future and is the symbol of the righteous man.
The national anthem is based on a late nineteenth-century Dutch composition. In the first lines, Surinamers are encouraged to rise because Sranangron (Suriname soil or territory) is calling them from wherever they originally come.
Before the first general elections in 1949, number of political parties were formed, mostly on an ethnic basis.
Against the will of the influential light-skinned Creole elite, the governor recognized so-called Asian marriages and other Asian cultural traditions.
The Creole elite increased its influence in the wake of a political process that started in 1942, when the Dutch promised their colonies more autonomy.
The idea was that the Asian immigrants would return to their homelands as soon as their contracts had expired, but most remained.
The policy of the Dutch colonial administration was one of assimilation: Native customs, traditions, languages, and laws had to give way to Dutch language, law, and culture.